2019 IEEE Transportation Electrification
Conference and EXPO Asia-Pacific
New Paradigm Shift, Sustainable E-Mobility
2019 IEEE Transportation Electrification
Conference and EXPO Asia-Pacific
New Paradigm Shift, Sustainable E-Mobility
Title : Electric Machines for Automotive Propulsion: History and Future
Dr. Bruno Lequesne, USA
It has been over twenty years now since the GM EV1 and the Toyota Prius hybrid were launched, one using an induction motor and the other an interior permanent magnet machine. This is just enough time to start to look at these machines from a historical perspective, examining early technical choices and changes over time to the present day, focusing on systems that were commercialized by automakers. The talk will draw from published reports and teardowns of these motors to explain and quantify improvements over time. The presentation will then logically follow with an attempt to extrapolate into the future, looking at what is likely and perhaps less likely to be seen in future electric and hybrid vehicles, from a point of view of materials, topology.
Bruno Lequesne received a Certified-Engineer degree from Centrale-Sup?lec, France, in 1978, and a PhD degree in electrical engineering from the Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO, USA, in 1984. He worked for 30 years in the automotive industry on transportation electrification research before starting his own consultancy, E-Motors Consulting, in 2014. His automotive involvement includes working at General Motors Research Laboratories (1984-1999) and Delphi Research and Powertrain groups (1999-2009). He subsequently joined Eaton Corporate Research & Technology group to focus on the electrification of commercial vehicles (2010-2014). Since starting his consultancy, he has continued to focus on automotive applications. Dr. Lequesne holds 53 patents. He is the recipient of eleven Best Paper Awards, eight from the IEEE- Industry Applications Society, including two Transactions Paper Awards, and three from the Society of Automotive Engineers, including the Colwell (2000) and the Bendix (2007) awards. He was elected an IEEE Fellow in 1997, and received the IEEE Nikola Tesla Award in 2016. Among a number of IEEE involvements, he is past president of the IEEE Industry Applications Society (2011-2012), and currently chairs the IEEE Transportation Electrification Community.
Title : Reliably of Power Electronics in Electrified Transportation System
Dr. Seungdeog Choi, Mississippi State University, USA
Emerging electrified transportation systems such as turbo electric aircraft, UAV, electric ship, and
electric/hybrid vehicles adopt more electric propulsion and power system architectures which controls
are enabled by modern power converters. Significant research effort has been provided by federal
agencies and various commercial research institutes to design the power converters to be more reliable
and efficient within small footprint for effective transportation applications. However, the application
of new and the emerging technology in mission- and safety- critical system has led to significant
reliability concerns with new mechanism of degradations, unexpected failure modes, and high bandwidth
electromagnetic interferences (EMI).
This talk will provides semi in-depth presentations on the reliability of power electronics systems in transportation electrification applications including (i) degradation mechanism of emerging wide band gap (WBG) power switches and (ii) new EMI modeling of WBG power devices in ungrounded system applications. This talk will also partially cover (iii) the on-going research efforts in automotive and wider electrified transportation engineering at the Center of Advanced Vehicle System (CAVS) and High Voltage Lab in Mississippi State University - Starkville. The expected level of intended audience is with entry and intermediate backgrounds in electrical and mechanical engineering.
Dr. Seungdeog Choi is associate professor at Mississippi State University since 2018 ~ present. He
received the B.S. degree from Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea, in 2004, the M.S. degree from
Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea, in 2006, and the Ph.D. degree in electric power and power
electronics program from Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA, in 2010. From 2006 to 2007, He
was research engineer in LG Electronics, Seoul, South Korea. From 2009 to 2012, he was a Research
Engineer with Toshiba International Corporation, Houston, TX, USA. He was an Assistant Professor at The
University of Akron, Akron, OH, USA from 2012~2018.
The key word of his research is “Reliability, Efficiency, and Power Density.” This includes the reliability control of power electronics systems, including: online condition monitoring, modeling, design and intelligent control of next generation power electronics system in various micro- and smart power grids (hybrid/electric vehicle, high speed train, electric ship and electric aircraft.). Dr. Choi’s research also focuses on the design of high reliability, high efficiency, high power density, and high-speed electric machine and drive system. He strives to achieve game changing design and applications of wide-band gap power devices (GaN and SiC power switches) in wider power electronics systems to significantly enhance energy efficiency and power density.
He is currently serving as associate editor in IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics. He has been serving as Track chair and session chair in IEEE APEC from 2017~present. He has also served as session chair, topic chair, working group member, and reviewer in various IEEE conferences and journals since 2010.
Title : Ultra fast charging method for lithium ion batteries considering degradation
Song-Yul Choe, Ph.D, Prof., Auburn University, USA
Reduction of charging time is one of challenging issues for different applications of lithium ion
batteries. Particularly, it is true with electric vehicles because a relatively long charging time
compared with that of internal combustion engines presents one of barriers for wide acceptance of EVs.
In addition, the charging time is elongated as more battery is installed to extend the drive range.
In fact, the charging time can be simply reduced by increased charging current that in return adversely accelerates degradation due to enhanced side reaction and lithium deposition reaction. Currently suggested charging methods such as constant current and constant voltage, constant power, multi stage constant current or any of the combined above do not take into account minimization of the reactions. Moreover, guidelines for charging methods provided by manufacturers are not based on the fundamental understanding in ion transport and electrochemical reactions that degrade battery.
A research team at Auburn University led by Dr. Choe proposes solutions for an ultra fast charging method that is designed using a reduced order electrochemical model that describes mechanisms of ion transport and the chemical reactions, which lead to not only reduction of charging time but also minimization of degradation compared with those by classical charging methods.
Side reactions and lithium deposition reaction are the reactions that cause both capacity and power loss. The side reaction causes growth of SEI and creation of extra deposit layer, loss of active materials and consumption of solvents of electrolyte. The lithium disposition reaction takes place at the anode particle surface and is called lithium plating that creates dendrites that potentially induces an internal short circuit and as a result safety of battery system can be endangered.
According to studies for the relationship between high charging C rates and lithium plating and side reaction, increased charging current induces saturated lithium ions concentration at the surface of anode particles, which results in a high side reaction and lithium plating. Elevated temperature promotes both reactions, simply because of high mobility of ions and associated reactions. On the other hand, the negative anode potential creates a favorite condition for formation of lithium plating. Moreover, according to conducted experiments, lithium ions in the plated lithium can be recovered by negative charging currents.
Based on these facts, a new fast charging method is designed by combining negative pulse and different limitations that include anode potential, side reaction rate and cutoff voltage, which is called an ultra fast charging method with negative pulse (FCNP). The internal variables such as potentials and ion concentrations are estimated using ROM with extended Kalman filter and compared with preset limitations to determine the charging protocol that consists of pulse, multi-stage of currents and constant voltage.
Experimental results of the method have shown that the charging time is reduced to around 37% up to 40% SOC and 13% up to 80% SOC. The capacity loss by FCNP is 13% less at the 60 cycles than that by 3C CC/CV charging. From beginning to 60 cycles, the capacity loss by the FCNP is similar to that by 3C CC/CV charging.
Song-Yul Choe received his diploma and Ph.D degree in electrical engineering from the Technical University of Berlin, Germany in 1986 and 1991. He is currently a Professor with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Auburn University, USA. Before joined the Auburn University, he was a director for HEV and EV program and development of advanced electronics in Hyundai Kia Motor Company. His current research focuses on theoretical and experimental investigations of Hybrid and Electric vehicles systems and components that include fuel cells, batteries and connectors along with integrated systems. His research focuses on high fidelity multi-dimensional models to better understand basic working mechanisms, reduced order models for real time applications, newly developing testing methods for characterization of materials of components and developments of advanced controls for managements and health monitoring, which ultimately facilitate design of highly efficient and reliable systems and components for future vehicles. He has published 50 journal papers, more than 100 conference papers and 6 patent applications.
Title : Blockchain Security
Dr. Yousef Al-Hammadi, United Arab Emirates University, UAE
Blockchain can provide trust to peer-to-peer shared distributed ledger that is immutable and assure the
integrity of blocks that can hold any type of data in the chain. This type of technology has reforms the
government and business processes to be more secure, transparence, fast, efficient and reduce the
Hash function is an example of cryptographic solution that can assure the integrity of each block and immutability of all blocks in the chain. Public key infrastructure is used to sign digitally the transaction and can be used for verification and block validation by using the consensus, which allow adding new validated block to the chain and eliminating invalid transactions. The identity management and key management for authentication either for public or permissioned blockchain is another security issue that is required to consider. ISO/TC 307 expected to release no later than 2021.
Blockchain applications such as Bitcoin, FinTech, smart contracts, etc. require also security protection such data at transit, communication, off chain, and storage. It expected that in 2019, the market value of blockchain application would be more than 38% of 2018.
Yousef Al-Hammadi received his Ph.D. in Information Security from Queensland University of Technology, Australia, in 2006. He worked for Ministry of Education in the UAE as Information Technology teacher, and then educational supervisor. He joined Ittihad University for two years as part-time lecturer. In 2013, he joined UAE University as fulltime faculty in the department of information systems and security, It college. Currently his research focuses on information security that includes hash function, reducing the complexity of algorithms, public key infrastructure (PKI), security policy, End-2-End security, data classification, in addition to new directions in information technology education.
Title : Testing and Certifying Artificial Intelligence Models for Autonomous and Connected Vehicles
Dr. Ernesto Damiani, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, UAE
Connected and autonomous vehicles increasingly incorporate Machine Learning (ML) models for solving autonomous navigation and control issues, including avoiding collisions that are caused by humans’ distracted driving. The code behind these ML models is mostly standard and their behavior depends heavily on their training, Traditional assurance techniques, which supported test-based safety and security certifications, require radical re-thinking to work in this scenario. While statistical testing provides a promising line of attack to this problem, there is lack of literature on its concrete application for online and offline testing of ML models embedded is autonomous vehicles. The keynote talk will present practical testing techniques for security and safety based on the Multi-Armed Bandit paradigm, and discuss the use of Artificial Intelligence techniques for generating such tests, using ML models to test other ML models verifying their compliance, not only to security and to safety properties, but also to ethical behavior guidelines.
Ernesto Damiani is a professor at the Department of Computer Science at Universita’ degli Studi di Milano, where he leads the SEcure Service-oriented Architectures Research (SESAR) Lab. Ernesto is also the Founding Director of the Center for Cyber-Physical Systems at Khalifa University, in the UAE. He received a honorary doctorate from Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon, France (2017) for his contributions to research and teaching on Big Data analytics. Ernesto is the Principal Investigator of the H2020 TOREADOR project on Big data as a service. His research spans Cyber-security, Big Data and cloud/edge processing, where he has published over 600 peer-reviewed articles and books. He is Distinguished Scientist of ACM and a recipient of the 2017 Stephen Yau Award.
Title : Technology development for Electrified Transportation - Present and Near Future
Dr. Longya Xu, Ohio State University, USA
In this talking, current technology developments in electric machines and power electronics will be presented for electrified transportations, including cars on road and vehicles in air. In electrified transportations, electric machines replace IC engines and semiconductor power converters replace geared transmissions. Various on-going examples will be given to highlight the salient advantages and serious challenges for electrified transportations in terms of performance and costs. Other technology developments including batteries and battery infrastructures will also be surveyed. At the current progressing pace, it is expected that hybrid electrical and pure electrical vehicles will become sub-mainstream means of transportations on road and in air in the coming decade. Supported and integrated with mobile communication technology, electrified transportation will bring a major change to our daily life and the global economy, and impact our society modernization and environment protection.
Longya Xu received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, in 1986 and 1990 both in Electrical Engineering. He presently is a full professor and the founding director of Center of High Performance Power Electronics (CHPPE) at The Ohio State University. He a leader for a major DoE Award ($2.7M) working on Silicon Carbide based MMC converter for high power density variable drives. Dr. Xu has made major contributions to state of the art Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEV) and all-electric Vehicles (EV) by designing the world's first Dual Mechanical Port (DMP) machine, which replaces all three powertrain components (motor, generator and transmission unit). Dr. Xu also led his team at OSU in developing, realizing, and experimentally validating the world's first 1-mega-watt 4.2-kilo-volt variable drive machine that achieved an efficiency of 99.4% while simultaneously allowing a size reduction of more than 60% as compared to state of the art designs. More recently he has accomplished the optimal design of an electric machine with a record-high power density (>14kw/kg) and efficiency (>99%) for aerospace applications, a key milestone toward the next-generation distributed hybrid propulsion systems for the all-electric airplanes. Dr. Xu is an IEEE Fellow and a well-recognized individual in the related professional community. He has received several IEEE prestigious awards, including the First Prize Paper Award 1992 from Industry Drive Committee IEEE/IAS, Best Transaction Paper Award 2013 and Outstanding Achievement Award 2014, the highest society award, from IEEE Industry Application Society. Dr. Xu is the recipient of the Nikola Tesla Award for his outstanding contributions to the generation and utilization of electric power. Dr. Xu has served as the chairman of Electric Machine Committee of IEEE/IAS and an Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics over the past two decades. Dr. Xu was a member-at-large on IEEE/IAS Executive Board and the Conference Co-Chair for IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo, AP 2014 and 2016.
Title : Security for Autonomous and Connected Vehicles
Dr. Chan Yeob Yeun, Khalifa University Science and Technology, UAE
Connected and autonomous vehicles are driver-less vehicles that incorporate various technologies to provide efficient and safe navigation by sensing their environments. Vehicles connectivity allows them to share location, speed, as well as weather, road and traffic conditions with their infrastructure. Their automated capability relies on onboard sensors to survey their surroundings to decide their activities during the driving trip. The connectivity and automation features require more sensor to be integrated and more computation resources to provide reliable and robust transportation infrastructure. However, as the computation resources and connectivity and automation levels increase, the system becomes more vulnerable to security attacks. Emerging connected and autonomous vehicles help in saving human lives by reducing traffic collisions that are caused by humans' distracted driving. Moreover, they help in minimizing traffic congestions and managing traffic flow, especially in urban environments. However, despite the various advantages of connected and autonomous vehicles, there are some foreseeable challenges and Cyber threats that persist which target the safety and the privacy of their users. In addition, connected and autonomous vehicles security challenges became a big concern for both industry and research community due to the large number of attacks that target their networks to disturb their communications, access private data or target the integrity of the data which may threaten human lives. Also, Vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) vehicles are considered as connected and autonomous vehicles that communicate and share information without the need for an infrastructure through ad-hoc network. There are various types of threats and attacks targeting different security services in connected and autonomous vehicles. These Cyber security threats including eavesdropping, man-in-the-middle, data modification, masquerading, jamming, replay attacks and GPS spoofing that are posed to confidentiality, integrity, authenticity, availability, non-repudiation and physical security. There is lack of literature detailing the vulnerabilities and mitigating techniques for connected and autonomous vehicles' control unit. Moreover, the type of personal data stored in the vehicle, their way of protection and who owns them remain unclear. Thus, the invited talk will be discussed about the Cyber security threats and attacks that are targeting the security services and the methods presented in the literature to mitigate their risks to an acceptable level. Also, research direction should focus on the security gaps of connected and autonomous vehicles that require attention from researchers.
Chan Yeob Yeun received his M.Sc. and Ph.D. in Information Security from Royal Holloway, University of London, in 1996 and in 2000, respectively. After that, he joined Toshiba TRL in Bristol, UK. Then, he became a Vice President at LG Electronics, Mobile Handset R&D Center in 2005 in Seoul, Korea. He was responsible for developing the Mobile TV technologies and its security. He left LG Electronics in 2007 and joined at KAIST in Korea until August 2008 and then moved to Khalifa University Science and Technology since September 2008. He is currently researching in Cyber Security that includes IoT/USN Security, Cyber Physical System Security, Cloud/Fog Security and Cryptographic techniques as an Associate Professor of Electrical and Computer Department and an active member of Center on Cyber-Physical Systems (C2PS). Also, he enjoys lecturing M.Sc. in Information Security and Ph.D. in Engineering Courses at Khalifa University. He has published 33 journal papers, 76 conference papers, 3 book chapters and 10 international patent applications. He is also serving as several Editorial Board members of International Journals and steering committee members of International Conferences and he is a senior member of the IEEE.
Title : V2G and Vehicle Grid Integration
Dr. Chresten Træholt, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
Chresten Træholt received his M.Sc. E. Eng. in 1987 and the PhD in 1994 from the Technical University of Denmark, DTU. During 1991 ? 1997 he completed terms as PhD, post doc and research scientist with the material science group at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. From 1997 ? 2007 he conducted R&D on superconducting cables, first as research fellow at DTU (1997 ? 2002), then as research engineer in the start-up joint venture Ultera (Denmark/USA) and NKT (2002 ? 2007). From 2007 ? 2012 he held a dual position at DTU and NKT Cables. In 2011 he was appointed Assoc. Prof. and from 2012 took up the current position as head of research group “Distributed Energy Resources” at the Center for Electric Power and Energy, CEE, Department of Electrical Engineering, DTU. His research experiences include material studies on layered semiconductor structures and thin film high temperature superconductors. The research was carried out by means of high resolution electron microscopy using world class equipment (Philips EM300/400). From 1997 ? 2012 his focus was on research, development and commercialization of superconducting cables. Since 2007 smart grid and virtual power plants became part of focus. Currently, his research covers distributed resources and their integration in the power system. Electro mobility and its integration in the power system has his particular attention as well as integration of other distributed renewable energy resources.
Title : Electric Vehicles as Flexible Resources for the Power Grid
Dr. Zechun Hu, Tsinghua University, China
The sales of electric vehicles are increasing very fast in recent years. More than two million plug-in electric vehicles (PHEVs) were sold in 2018 and the total PHEVs on road surpassed five million worldwide. The increase of PHEVs is bringing more and more charging loads to the power grids. Because the charging loads of PHEVs usually have flexibility to some extent, they can act as flexible resources to support the secure and economic operation of power systems. This talk will first present some backgrounds on the sales of PHEV, developments of charging facilities and charging services. Secondly, the potential of PHEVs as flexible resources will be illustrated. Thirdly, the approaches to harness the flexibilities of PHEVs for different purposes, including price arbitrage, participating energy and ancillary service markets, will be introduced. In this talk, the problems and future directions on the interactions of PHEVs and smart grid will also be discussed.
Zechun Hu received the B.S. degree and Ph.D. degree from Xi'an Jiao Tong University, Shaanxi, China, in 2000 and 2006, respectively. He joined Shanghai Jiao Tong University as a lecture after graduation. He worked as a research officer from 2009 to 2010 in University of Bath, UK. He joined the Department of Electrical Engineering at Tsinghua University in 2010 where he is now an associate professor. He visited University of California, Berkeley as a visiting professor in 2018. Dr. Hu has published more than 170 papers including 38 papers published on IEEE Transactions, and two book chapters. He is serving as an Editorial Board member of IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification and IET Smart Grid. He is a senior member of IEEE. Currently, his major research interests include vehicle to grid techniques, applications of energy storage in power systems, optimal planning & operation of power systems, and electricity markets.
Title : Accelerating Sustainable Mobility: A Policy Framework for Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure
Director Elizabeth A. Kocs, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
The world is on the brink of the largest mobility revolution ever! A convergence of multiple societal trends and technological advances, such as batteries and autonomous, connected, electric and smart (ACES) vehicles are already transforming our mobility systems. Another key component in this shift is deploying charging infrastructure that operates responsibly and produces?the greatest societal benefit. This talk will present a policy framework for EV charging infrastructure supported by five?interconnected components: 1)?environmental advantages ? reduce and avoid carbon emissions from internal combustion engines by charging off the electricity grid; 2) public health benefits ? reduce significant medical costs and premature death by charging with renewable electricity; 3) infrastructure compatible ? provide flexible load and manage demand by charging off-peak; 4) consumer centered ? allow consumers convenient, accessible, economical and flexible options for charging; and 5) economically favorable ? offer appealing business opportunities and models that utilize net benefits, partnerships and multiple sources of potential revenue.
Elizabeth A. Kocs is Director of Partnerships & Strategy for the UIC Energy Initiative, Adjunct Professor for Urban Planning and Policy, Faculty Fellow for the Honors College, and Technology Commercialization Fellow at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), where the focus of her work is to lead the strategic direction and partnership development of the UIC Energy Initiative. She is an environment-behavior scientist at the intersections of energy, technology, economics, society and urban resilience, and her scholarly work spans environmental research on energy and sustainability perspectives and the built and human environments. Dr. K?cs earned her B.Arch. in Architecture from Pratt Institute (New York), Executive MBA from University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, and PhD in Environmental Psychology from the City University of New York Graduate Center.
Title : Mobility, Energy Efficiency and the Smart City
Dr. Giorgio Rizzoni, Ohio State University, USA
Mobility is undergoing dramatic transformations that will radically change the way we move and access work and leisure time. This presentation presents a broad overview of the technologies and challenges ahead of us in the medium and long term, touching on various topics related to Smart cities and smart mobility, using the Smart Columbus Project to illustrate what may become possible in the near future.
Giorgio Rizzoni, the Ford Motor Company Chair in ElectroMechanical Systems, is a Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and of Electrical and Computer Engineering at The Ohio State University (OSU). He received his B.S. (ECE) in 1980, his M.S. (ECE) in 1982, his Ph.D. (ECE) in 1986, all from the University of Michigan. Since 1999 he has been the director of the Ohio State University Center for Automotive Research (CAR), an interdisciplinary university research center in the OSU College of Engineering. His research activities are related to modeling, control and diagnosis of advanced vehicles, energy efficiency, alternative fuels, the interaction between vehicles and the electric power grid, vehicle safety and intelligence, and policy and economic analysis of alternative fuels and vehicle fuel economy. He is currently serving as PI on a 2017-2020 ARPA-E NEXTCAR program that aims to tied vehicle automation and connectivity to powertrain control and fuel economy. He has contributed to the development of graduate curricula in these areas, and has served as the director of three U.S. Department of Energy Graduate Automotive Technology Education Centers of Excellence: Hybrid Drivetrains and Control Systems (1998-2004), Advanced Propulsion Systems (2005-2011, and Energy Efficient Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility (2011-2016). Between 2011 and 2016 he served as the OSU Site Director for the U.S. Department of Energy China-USA Clean Energy Research Center - Clean Vehicles. Prof. Rizzoni is a Fellow of SAE (2005), a Fellow of IEEE (2004), a recipient of the 1991 National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator Award, and of numerous other technical and teaching awards.
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